One key value, and perhaps the key value, is whether a culture values individualism over collectivism or vice versa, particularly whether an individual will make a decision in terms of his or her own desires or subordinate such desires to the demands and norms of the group. In all or most chapters or my lectures notes it has been described the type of individualism or collectivism found within each national culture, for example, Scandinavian individualism, U.S. competitive individualism, kata-based Japanese collectivism, and Hindu-based and familial Indian collectivism. It has been also provided a summary of many key values by describing the various scales that Hofstede (2001) and the GLOBE researchers (House et al., 2004) derived and used the national rankings on these scales throughout the book. See Chapter 1 and Chapter 15. Is the U.S.A. an individualistic or a collectivistic national culture? Why? Is American football an individualistic or collectivistic game in terms of values? Why?
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