Social Media Effects on Perceived Narcissism and Selfishness

Social Media Effects on Perceived Narcissism and Selfishness
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Social Medias Effects on Perceived Narcissism and Selfishness

Anonymous Author

Florida International University

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Abstract

Methods One Students: Typically, authors add their abstract for the paper here on the second

page. As you can see, the abstract for this paper is missing. Your job is to supply that abstract!

Read over the following paper, which is an actual paper turned in by a former student taking

Research Methods and Design II at FIU. This is similar to a paper you will write next semester.

Review the studies in this paper, and spot the hypotheses, independent and dependent variables,

participants, results, and implications, and write it up in one paragraph (no more than 250 words

maximum). Make sure to include keywords as well (keywords are words or short phrases that

researchers use when searching through online databases like PsycInfo – they need to be

descriptive of the paper, so come up with three or four that seem to suit this paper). Good luck!

Keywords: methods, paper, abstract, assignment, preview

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Social Medias Effects on Perceived Narcissism and Selfishness

The advent of social media has created an explosion of self-expression never before seen

in modern history. Social media allows people to present the best version of themselves to the

eyes of the world via pictures, specifically selfies, videos and live streaming of their everyday

lives, available to anyone with an internet connection and a desire to make themselves known to

the world (Wang et al., 2018). Websites such as Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat are

immensely popular today for allowing some of their users to create an entirely new identity for

themselves in the hopes that it will attract new followers and give them more publicity within the

social media networks. Although this kind of self-promotion can be rationalized as just trying to

put yourself out there in the world to make new connections and perhaps open doors to new

career opportunities, this kind of behavior can be seen as a narcissistic self-obsession with

oneself by consumers of their content.

Narcissism is defined as a pattern of grandiosity, a need for admiration, and a lack of

empathy (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). The influence of narcissism on a person’s

selfie taking tendencies has been widely known throughout various research articles. A study

conducted by Sung et al. (2016), points out that a common reason that selfies are posted by

social media users is to seek admiration from their followers by posting likeable pictures that

share their own interests and values in the hopes that their posts are liked and shared by

followers and friends as a form of positive reciprocation of their selfie. The study was conducted

by having 315 participants in Seoul, Korea, complete a 13 item Narcissism Personality Inventory

(NPI 13), and resulted in data that showed that selfie posting frequency was correlated with

attention seeking motivation and narcissism, with participants also stating their intentions to post

more selfies in future posts (Sung et al., 2016). Additional findings indicated that narcissism had

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a heavy influence in the selfie taking motivations of the individuals surveyed in the study and

accurately predicted selfie taking frequency and the purpose of their posts. The researchers

managed to find a link between narcissism and selfie taking by finding that the individuals in the

study used their selfie taking as a method of impression management, which is behavior that is

frequently observed in individuals with high amounts of narcissism (Sung et al., 2016).

Further research corroborates the link between obsessive selfie posters and narcissism. A

study conducted by Halpern et al. (2016), used a two-wave panel study that was completed one

year apart and involved 500 participants in Chile. The participants rated their narcissism using

questionnaires related to their perceived superiority levels and their selfie taking behavior. The

results of the study revealed that not only do narcissists engage in more selfie taking and social

media usage when compared to non-narcissistic participants, but it reported that frequent selfie

takers became more narcissistic over time as their selfie taking behavior continued (Halpern et

al., 2016).

People are known to want to associate themselves with others who share similar values

and exhibit similar behavior. It is no different with people who hold narcissistic traits and it is

evident that this herd like behavior spreads to social media platforms as well. A study conducted

by Jin and Muqaddam (2018), hypothesized that narcissistic viewers of Instagram selfies would

show a more positive attitude towards selfies, would be more likely to take more selfies

themselves in the future, and would be more likely to follow the original poster of the selfie

compared to a non-narcissistic viewer. An experiment was conducted in which participants

would be tested on their own narcissistic tendencies and then answered questions about their

thoughts regarding the original posters perceived narcissism. The study concluded that

narcissistic participants were indeed more likely to post more selfies in the future while

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exhibiting more positive views of the original selfie poster while also being more likely to follow

the original posters Instagram profile (Jin & Muqaddam, 2016).

Another factor to take into account about narcissistic selfie taking is the role of body

image and the influence it plays regarding the prevalence in selfie posting. Being comfortable in

one’s own skin is a large factor in deciding to post a picture that reveals your body for the world

to see, and a narcissistic trait is to have an unusually high perception of one’s self, even if the

perception is far from reality. Facebook users who claim to have a more positive perception of

their own bodies report a greater incidence of pictures that include a large portion of their bodies

(Pounders et al, 2016). Further research shows that personal satisfaction with body image has a

significant and positive correlation to posting full body pictures online (Fox & Vendemia 2016;

Ridgway & Clayton 2016). A study conducted by Wang et al. (2018) examined the link between

narcissism and positive body image and its influence on body exposure in selfie pictures by

having participants rate their overall satisfaction with their bodies, their attitudes toward taking

selfies, and their selfie posting behavior. The results of the study made evident the correlation

that body satisfaction mediates the relationship between narcissistic traits and selfie taking

behavior. This result also shows that high body satisfaction among narcissistic participants is

prevalent and contributes to a higher ratio of their bodies being shown in selfie taking behaviors

(Wang et al., 2018).

Selfies have been shown to influence an observer’s social judgements about a posters

content (Qiu et al., 2015). A study conducted by Taylor et al. (2017) presented participants with

four fictitious Facebook accounts that varied in valence and selfie presence. The participants

observed the status updates of the profiles and were instructed to rate their level of social

attraction to each profile, the level of perceived narcissism, and the appropriateness of the

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message with the accompanying selfie picture. Results showed that the majority of participants

rated the status updates that were accompanied by selfies to be more narcissistic than those

without selfies, posts with messages were deemed to be inappropriate when accompanied with

selfies, and were ranked as less socially attractive than those without selfies (Taylor et al., 2017).

This ties in to the notion that not only do frequent posters of selfies on social media networks

tend to exhibit narcissistic traits, but social media users are perceived to be narcissistic by

observers of their content when compared to posts that don’t include selfies.

Study one

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of different styles of picture taking and the

resulting perceptions made by the people who observe them. In general, we predict that

participants will rate a fictional Instagram user (Emma) as more narcissistic if “selfies”

accompany her Instagram account than if “groupies” or “professional” photos accompany her

account. More specifically, we predict that if participants are exposed to selfie photos, then they

will believe that an Instagram user posts to her social media accounts more often and seems more

narcissistic compared to participants exposed to either groupie or professional photos, though

these latter two conditions should not differ from each other in their Instagram user ratings.

Method

Participants

One-hundred and forty-one participants from Florida International University participated

in a study regarding social medias effects on perceived narcissism and selfishness. Of these

participants, 68 were male (48.20%), and 73 being female (51.80%). The age of the sample

ranged from 17 to 70 (M = 26.90, SD = 10.12). This included 19.90% Caucasian (N = 28),

58.20% Hispanic (N = 82), 1.40% Native American (N = 2), 9.90% African American (N = 14),

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3.50% Asian American (N = 5), and 7.10% who identified as being of a “other” race (N = 10).

There were 64 participants who reported being students at Florida International University

(45.40%), with 77 participants reporting not being students (54.60%).

Materials and Procedure

Materials utilized for the study included three sets of two-page questionnaires and

pencils. The participants of the study were randomly given one of the three questionnaires and

were sked to read and complete them. The questionnaires were split into five parts: Part I- Look

at pictures of the study subject (Emma Wood) and answer questions about the pictures and their

own preferences. Part II- Participants are asked to record their impressions of Emma based on

the pictures they saw. Part III- Participants complete a survey detailing their own personal

characteristics using questions adapted from the Narcissism Personality Inventory (NPI). Part

IV- Participants provide their demographic information. Part V- Participants are asked what kind

of picture they believe they observed and record their answers.

The study was split into two phases to differentiate between the introductory phase of the

study and the participatory phase of the study. The introductory phase of the study gave the

researchers an opportunity to explain the study and its objective to prospective participants,

while receiving verbal consent to participate in the second phase of the study. The first phase of

the study involved researchers finding participants by asking strangers whether they would be

willing to take part in a brief study regarding social media profiles and perceived narcissism

based on pictures posted by the social media user. Once informed consent was given by the

participants after being informed of the risks and costs of the procedure, those who agreed to

participate in the study were briefed on the information that was required from them, the

sequence of questions they were to expect in the study and were provided with the materials

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needed to complete the study. The second phase of the study began by the researchers randomly

handing out one of the three questionnaires to participants and instructing the participants to read

the entirety of the Instagram page and to complete the questionnaire at their own pace.

Part I of the study involved the participants viewing a fictional Instagram page of a

woman named Emma Wood. The questionnaires each had three different sets of pictures for the

participants to base their answers from. Each of the three questionnaires given to the participants

were randomly selected with one of the following conditions: Selfie Condition- Three self-taken

pictures of Emma taken by herself with differing facial expressions. Groupie Condition- Three

pictures of Emma with at least one other person included in the picture. Professional Condition-

Three pictures of Emma taken in a staged setting by a professional photographer.

Part I also contained three questions for the participants to answer. Participants were asked

to look at three pictures of Emma’s fictional Instagram profile (the subject of the study) and rate

which picture the participant preferred, when they think Emma last updated her Instagram

profile, and how often they thought Emma posts more thoughts or pictures in Instagram.

Question one was answered in an A, B, or C format, question two and three was answered on an

interval scale, ranging from 0 (rarely) to 5 (constantly).

Part II of the questionnaire involved the participant rating their own impressions of

Emma Wood and are given 10 questions to be completed on an interval scale of 0 (Strongly

disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree). The questions asked if the participant thinks Emma seemed

smart, happy, generous, self-absorbed, helpful, shy, selfish, down-to-earth, narcissistic, and

egotistical. In part III, participants were asked to rate themselves on an interval scale from 0

(Strongly Disagree) to 5 (Strongly Agree) based on 10 questions that were sourced from the NPI.

Part IV tasked participants with completing demographic information that included their race,

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gender, age, first language and whether they were a student at Florida International University.

Lastly, part V asked participants which terms best describes Emma’s photos based on three given

categories (selfie, groupie, professional).

At the end of the study, the researchers thanked the participants for their contributions to

the study and debriefed them about the details and the expectations of the study regarding the

link between narcissism and selfie. The researchers closed the session by debriefing the

participants a narrative detailing the research question, their method and the hypothesis

formulated by the researchers.

After the completion of the study, researchers input the data into SPSS – Data Analysis

Software system where photo condition (selfie vs. groupie vs. professional) was the independent

variable, and the frequency of Emma posts her social media and Emma’s narcissism were the

two main dependent variables analyzed. Photo condition manipulation was checked as well.

Results

A Chi-square test was used to check for proper recall of the provided pictures (selfie,

groupie, professional) and whether participants were able to correctly categorize the photos with

the proper picture type. The chi square was significant, 2 (4) = 159.27 p < .001. Most “Selfie” participants recalled seeing selfies (84.40%). Most “Groupie” participants recalled seeing groupies (83.00%). Finally, most “Professional” participants recalled seeing professional photos (81.60%). Cramer’s V, which was approximate for this test, was very strong (.75). This indicates that most participants had very strong recall of the pictures and correctly categorized them with the proper provided labels in the questionnaire. We ran a One-Way ANOVA with photo condition as our independent variable (Selfie v Groupie v Professional) and ratings of Emma’s narcissism as our dependent variable, F(2,138) = SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 10 13.40, p < .001. A Tukey post hoc test showed that participants thought Emma was significantly more narcissistic in the selfie condition (M = 3.02, SD = 1.16) than in both the groupie condition (M = 2.13, SD = .82) and the professional condition (M = 2.20, SD = .74). Participants in the groupie and professional conditions, however, did not differ from one another. These results show Emma’s selfie condition is much more likely to receive a judgement of her being more narcissistic when compared to either the groupie or professional photo types. We ran a One-Way ANOVA with photo condition as our independent variable (Selfie v Groupie v Professional) and ratings of how frequently Emma posts to social media as our dependent variable, F(2,138) = 11.98, p < .001. A Tukey post hoc test showed that participants thought Emma was significantly more likely to post in the selfie condition (M = 3.18, SD = 1.07) than in the groupie condition (M = 2.47, SD = .75) and the professional condition (M = 2.29, SD = .94). Participants in the groupie and professional conditions did not differ from one another. Discussion It was predicted that participants would rate a fictional Instagram user as more narcissistic and more frequently posts on social media if “selfies” accompany her account. The results supported the hypothesis as participants did perceive Emma as more narcissistic and thought Emma posts on her social media more frequently when exposed to her selfie pictures compared to those who exposed to her groupie and professional pictures. Further research is needed to determine if certain individual variables brought in by the participants themselves influenced their rationale as to why they believed Emma to be narcissistic when observing her selfie photos compared to her groupie and professional photos. Study Two SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 11 A valuable variable that can hold a significant influence in whether a social media post is deemed to be narcissistic or not is the gender of the observer of the picture. It is expected that men and women will react differently in the same situation, but just how different men and women will react to seeing the same picture has yet to be thoroughly researched. The aim of this second study is to examine the differences between male and female users of social networking sites and other forms of media, and the relationship between gender and their judgement towards someone with a narcissistic personality. A study conducted by the Pew Research Center that tracked social media usage by the American public showed that 69% of Americans were members of at least one social networking site (Perrin, 2017). This serves to prove that the prevalence of social media can be used as a tool to discover patterns of personal judgement and perception through a digital medium. A study conducted by Bacev-Giles and Haji (2017), focused on analyzing how first impressions were assessed based on reviewing personal descriptions of a fictitious person’s social media profile. The social media profiles included short quotes that hinted at the users personality and brief descriptions of hobbies they engaged in. The profile pictures of these fake profiles were substituted for avatars to avoid influencing decision making in the form of altered or improved personal photos. The information shown was designed to be neutral in meaning, but with a positive message to remain similar to social media profiles of actual people, who tend to showcase their positive traits and refrain from sharing negative characteristics to appear more attractive to viewers (Qiu et al., 2012). Subjects reported back with positive responses on their initial impressions of the social media profiles. Participants had a tendency to exaggerate the persons positive traits while underestimating their negative attributes (Bacev-Giles & Haji, 2017). The results also found that the positive descriptions were intertwined with gender SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 12 stereotypic descriptions of the profiles. Men were commonly described as “athletic” or “active”, while women were characterized as “warm” or “creative” (Bacev-Giles & Haji, 2017). These results can serve as a steppingstone for exploring deeper into the decision-making processes of social media users. The study managed to highlight the influence of personal descriptions of social media users on an observers initial impression of them without their opinion being affected by what could be seen as a narcissistic or self-promoting selfie type picture as the focal point of their visual perception of the user. In reference to an article discussed in study one, a study conducted by (Sung et al., 2016), discovered that selfies are taken frequently by social media users to gain acceptance from likeminded peers and reaffirm their sense of self by achieving the admiration of others. This frequent selfie taking behavior correlated with increased narcissism and attention seeking behavior based on the results of a 13 item NPI (Sung et al., 2016). In correlation with the aforementioned study, Buss and Chiodo (1991) identified that women are highly concerned about physical appearance in relation to acts centered around improving their perceived attractiveness. Women were found to be more likely to show off their figure, ask others about her appearance, and comment on how much weight they had lost (Buss & Chiodo, 1991). It could be argued that had this study been replicated in modern day society, frequent selfie taking behavior and aesthetic improvements to selfies in the form of filters, airbrushes, or other cosmetic enhancements would be used by women to enhance their beauty for others to gaze upon. There is a clear disparity on gender norms and expectations that is propagated culturally through various forms of media, such as television, radio, and more recently through the internet. Although different cultures have established unique standards as to what defines femininity and masculinity, contemporary American society has long established unofficial guidelines regarding SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 13 what constitutes proper behavior for each gender. A study conducted by Zemach and Cohen (1986), revealed generous differences in television reality and social reality. A sample of 1202 subjects, 61% women and 39% men were handed a questionnaire that asked questions related to certain occupations and chores. The participants were then asked to answer which gender they expected to be involved in the situation and which gender actively participated in said chore within their family network. The results of the questionnaire showed great discrepancies regarding perceived gender roles and was heavily influenced by the amount of fictional television viewed by the respondents. Among males who described themselves as heavy viewers of fictional programs, 63% ranked sensitivity as a feminine trait, while 47% of light male viewers reported the same findings (Zemach & Cohen, 1986). Further evidence of television influence was found in the perceived roles based off of t.v. viewing versus the roles their families occupied in the household. Where 68% of men reported that child rearing was a woman’s job, only 41% reported it to be the case in their home (Zemach & Cohen, 1986). It is debatable whether pre-conceived notions of gender in the home and in the work place would have an effect on whether a person judges a social media profile to be narcissistic, but it could be presumed that if these beliefs are held by the viewer, it would lead to a harsher judgement by the viewer when observing the profile. The thought that a woman with strong notions of how a woman should behave in society, a submissive, friendly, soft spoke person, would be critical of a picture of another woman who exhibits a strong, confident demeanor doesn’t seem to far-fetched and would likely label the individual in the picture as narcissistic if given the opportunity. The second study in the present research analyzes how gender influences whether a person is deemed to have narcissistic tendencies. The new independent variable added to study two is Instagram user’s gender (female vs. male), and the original independent variable, photo SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 14 condition, remains, but with two conditions left: selfie vs. professional. The hypotheses in the study two examines the influences of Instagram user’s gender and interaction effect of photo type and gender on how people feel about the user. When it comes to the frequency the user posts on social media, people will think more frequently when the user is a female, compared to a male user. In addition, people will think a user will post most frequently when the user is a female and she posts selfie pictures, compared to a male use who posts professional pictures. When it comes to how narcissistic people think about the user, similar findings will emerge. Method Participants Seven-hundred and fifty-one participants, 39.90 % (N = 299) college students from Florida International University (FIU) and 60.10 % (N = 450) not students at FIU, were recruited from among family members and friends of the experimenters to participate in study two. Of these 751 participants, 33.70 % (N = 253) were male and 65.5 % (N = 492) were female, with 0.50 % (N=4) of participants stating “other” as their gender and 0.25 % (N=2) answers missing from the results. Ages ranged from a minimum of 14 years to a maximum of 76 years, with an average (mean) age of M = 26.35 years (SD = 9.74). Our sample population consisted of 63.20 % native English speakers (N= 475), 29.80 % native Spanish speakers (N = 140), and 5.90 % native speakers of other languages (N = 28). Materials and Procedure Materials utilized for study two consisted of 2 different, randomly generated Qulatrics questionnaires that participants accessed online via an electronic device with internet connectivity (e.g., tablet, smart phone, computer). The study was split into two phases similar to SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 15 study one, the introductory phase and the participatory phase. The introductory phase involved researchers finding willing participants to engage in a study examining social media profiles and perceived narcissism based on styles of pictures posted by the user, and how the gender of the poster and photo priming would affect the results of the study. The participatory phase involved the willing participants going online and completing a questionnaire that collected their answers. The questionnaire contained the purpose of the study, the procedures participants were to engage in, demographic questions, manipulation check, and a debriefing section informing the participants of the hypothesis of the researchers and contact information for future reference. The procedure of the experiment was conducted as follows: The instruction contained the objective of the study, procedures, risks and benefits, and concluded with asking for consent to participate in the study. Next participants viewed fictitious female and male profiles with gender neutral names (Avery Wood) and were asked to rate their favorite picture from a 3-picture array of selfie pictures or a 3-picture array of professional pictures. The participants were asked about their thoughts of how often they thought the profile owners updated their profile picture and how often they thought they posted pictures on their profiles on an interval scale, ranging from 0 (rarely) to 5 (constantly). The individual surveys taken by the participants were randomly generated by the Qualtrics survey generator and resulted in participants either seeing the male Avery with selfie pictures, male Avery with professional pictures, female Avery with selfie pictures, or female Avery with professional pictures. Next, participants answered 10 questions on an interval scale of 1 (Strongly disagree) to 6 (Strongly Agree). The questions asked if the participant thinks Avery seemed smart, happy, generous, self-absorbed, helpful, shy, selfish, down-to-earth, narcissistic, and egotistical. SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 16 Then participants complete a self-assessment in which participants were asked to rate themselves on an interval scale from 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 6 (Strongly Agree) based on 10 questions that were sourced from NPI, demographic information that included their gender, race, age, first language learned, and whether they were a student at Florida International University, and answered how often they posted their thoughts and pictures to their social media profiles. Next, a manipulation check was provided, asking participants to rate their favorite picture of Avery, whether it was the selfie, professional photo, or if it was unknown which the favorite was. It also asked what gender they believed Avery to be, whether male, female, or unknown. A debriefing at the end of survey was explained to participants the significance of their questionnaire and how the results will be measured as part of a larger study to better understand how certain personality traits, such as selfishness, self-absorption, and narcissism are judged when faced viewing social media pictures that focus on the gender of the person in the picture, and the nature of the photo priming present. Results A chi-square test was used to check user gender as reported by the participants as the independent variable and whether participants recalled Avery’s gender as male or female as the dependent variable. There was a significant main effect, 2(2) = 682.60, p = .003. Most participants correctly recalled Avery’s gender as female (95%) when viewing the female profile of Avery, while most participants also correctly noted Avery as male (93.8%) when viewing the male profile of Avery (Table 1). The results show that the majority of participants were able to correctly identify Avery’s gender when viewing the male and female social media profiles. Table 1 Manipulation check on Avery’s Gender SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 17 Levels of Variable Percentage Male Female Unknown 93.8 95.0 4.4 2(2) = 682.60, p =.003 An additional chi-square test was used to check photo priming manipulation as the independent variable, and how participants viewed Avery’s pictures (selfies vs. professional vs. unknown) as the dependent variable. There was a significant main effect, 2(2) = 478.40, p = .025. Most participants correctly reported Avery’s pictures as selfies (90.4%) as well as correctly designated most of the professional photos as well (79.2%), but to a lesser degree than the selfie pictures (Table 2). Table 2 Manipulation Check on Selfie, Professional, or Unknown Options Levels of Variable Percentage Selfie Other (Professional) Unknown 90.4 79.2 6.8 2(2) = 478.40, p = .025 The first 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA was analyzed, with photo condition (selfie vs. professional) and user gender (male vs. female) as independent variables and how often participants thought Avery posted thoughts or pictures on their social media profiles (Instagram) as the dependent variable. Photo condition showed a significant main effect on how often participants thought Avery posted thoughts or pictures on social media, F (1, 747) = 4.86, p = .028. Participants who viewed the selfie picture (M = 4.22, SD = 1.42) rated Avery as posting more often than those who viewed professional picture (M = 3.79, SD = 1.25). The main effect of user gender was significant, F (1,747) = 8.74, p = .003. Participants who viewed female Avery SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 18 account (M = 3.86, SD = 1.12) rated Avery posting more often than those who viewed male Avery account (M = 3.72, SD = 1.46). There was no interaction effect between photo condition and user gender, F (1,747) = 2.27, p = .132 (see Table 3). Table 3 2 x 2 ANOVA on Avery’s Posting Frequency on Social Media Source Sum of Square df Mean Square F p Corrected model Intercept IV User gender IV Photo condition User gender*Photo Condition Error Total 28.023 11410.527 15.274 8.495 3.972 1305.487 12757.000 3 1 1 1 1 747 751 9.341 11410.527 15.274 8.495 3.972 1.748 5.345 6529.106 8.740 4.861 2.273 .001 .000 .003 .028 .132 The second 2 x 2 factorial ANOVA was analyzed, with photo condition (selfie vs. professional) and user gender (male vs. female) as independent variables and how narcissistic participants viewed Avery as the dependent variable. Photo condition showed a significant main effect, F (1, 747) = 12.05, p = .001. Participants who viewed the selfie picture (M = 3.61, SD = 1.54) rated Avery as more narcissistic than those who viewed professional picture (M = 3.21, SD = 1.23). The main effect of user gender was significant, F (1,747) = 5.12, p = .024. Participants who viewed female Avery account (M = 3.32, SD = 1.24) rated Avery more narcissistic than those who viewed male Avery account (M = 3.05, SD = 1.27). There was no interaction effect between photo condition and user gender, F (1,747) = .45, p = .504 (see Table 3). Table 4 2 x 2 ANOVA Avery Seems Narcissistic Source Sum of Square df Mean Square F p SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 19 Corrected model Intercept IV User gender IV Photo condition User gender*Photo Condition Error Total 31.125 8168.112 8.961 21.113 0.781 1308.465 9516.000 3 1 1 1 1 747 751 10.375 8168.112 8.961 21.113. 0.781 1.752 5.923 4663.158 5.116 12.054 0.446 .001 .000 .024 .001 .504 Discussion In study two, it was predicted that participants would rate Avery as more narcissistic when shown selfie style pictures as opposed to professional style photos. The results of the study found that participants rated the female version of the social media profile more likely to update their profile more often with their thoughts and pictures compared to male owned profiles. These results coincide with the findings discovered in study one, in which the fictitious social media profile of Emma, was rated as more narcissistic because of her perceived tendency to post selfies of herself often on her social media profile. For the second dependent variable, it was hypothesized that participants would rate Avery more narcissistic if they saw the female social media profile as opposed to the male version. The results state that the female version of Avery was rated as more narcissistic in both the selfie and professional categories than in the male version. This further supports the proposed hypothesis that was surmised at the beginning of study one and the updated hypothesis for the second study. General Discussion Throughout both studies, research revealed the extent to which gender and picture type influenced the opinions of participants when viewing fictitious profiles of male and female subjects. Participants in the first study were more likely to rate a given social media profiles user as more narcissistic if exposed to profiles with a higher amount of selfie pictures as opposed to SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 20 pictures taken in a professional or group setting. The second study focused on the relationship between gender differences and its influence on the perceived narcissism ratings of the subjects. Our results support the hypothesis that female subjects would be perceived as more narcissistic than male counterparts when viewed through the selfie and professional conditions. Study two’s results also found that the female counterparts were rated as more likely to update their posts more often by adding pictures more frequently than males. The results of these studies support the findings of a prior study conducted by Halpern et al. (2016), that correlate frequent selfie taking and social media activity with higher levels of reported narcissism. A previous study conducted by Taylor et al. (2017) further cements the prevalence of selfie type photos and social media users with narcissistic personality traits. The study corroborates the results of the performed studies by reporting that the majority of participants found status updates that were accompanied by selfie type pictures to be more narcissistic than those without such pictures. Posts that included selfies were also deemed to be inappropriate and less socially attractive to viewers when compared to posts without selfies (Taylor et al., 2017). These findings could serve well as a source of insight for future studies regarding social media interactions and examining what kinds of physical behaviors cause people in society to associate them with a certain trait, whether it be narcissistic, selfish, shy, etc. The results of the present studies could very well have been jeopardized by multiple factors and limitations that went unnoticed. Future studies should strive to collect a larger participant base with a more diverse age group. The population sample of the study consisted of around half being college age students who also happened to be attending the same university at the time of the study. This could present some sort of institutional bias into the findings from having such a large presence of likeminded individuals attending the same institution. The SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 21 generational representation in the study can also lead to questionable validity of the study’s results, as the mean ages of the participants of the study are 26.9 years of age for study one, and 26.4 for study two. This overrepresentation of younger participants can overshadow the results of the older participants answers collected from the study. Even though our studies provided strong main effects between the independent and dependent variables, a more diverse population sample could have altered the results through more widespread age and cultural standing. Study ones demographic information revealed that 58% of participants were from Latin American backgrounds. This overrepresentation of Latin American responses poses an internal validity threat to the study as the results are too heavily influenced by one population group to be applicable in other studies because of the underrepresentation of other ethnic groups. Although this percentage could be reasonably expected in the community in which the study was conducted (Miami), subsequent studies should strive to find a more balanced population sample so as to prevent any one ethnicity from skewing the results. Different ethnic backgrounds can affect a person’s belief in what makes a person seem narcissistic, selfish, etc., and these cultural differences could have been better represented with a more evenly distributed cultural background sample. Due to the large presence of college age students, more effort could be focused into expanding the participant population to better represent an average response if future researchers decide to test for any differences between students and Americans who have already finished college or are in the workforce. Analyzing the influence of selfies and its influence on personal assumptions of other people can have a profound impact on how people market themselves to others in today’s digital age. These findings show that people will make split second judgements off of something as trivial as a fun selfie picture taken at the beach and lead to false assumptions about another SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 22 person before they even meet them. Modern facets of online communication, such as dating websites and personal job seeking sites such as LinkedIn can be affected by our critical tendencies and affect decision making that impacts our daily lives. This study exposes humans as judgmental creatures and creates a new dilemma for us to navigate in a society where people are often times treated by how they are perceived rather than taking the time to know who they really are. SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 23 References American Psychological Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. Bacev-Giles, C., & Haji, R. (2017). Online first impressions: Person perception in social media profiles. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 50-57. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0704_336 Buss, D. M., & Chiodo, L. M. (1991). Narcissistic acts in everyday life. Journal of personality, 59(2), 179-215. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6496.1991.tb00773.x Fox, J., & Venemia, M. A. (2016). Selective self-presentation and social comparison through photographs on social networking sites. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 19(10), 593-600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.12.003 Halpern, D., Valenzuela, S., & Katz, J. E. (May, 2016) “Selfie-ists” or “Narci-selfiers”? A Cross-lagged Panel Analysis of Selfie Taking And Narcissism. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 98-101. DOI:10.1207/s15327957pspr0704_05 Jin, S. V., & Muqaddam, A. (2018). Narcissism 2.0! Would narcissists follow fellow narcissists on Instagram? The mediating effects of narcissists personality similarity and envy, and the moderating effects of popularity. Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 31-41. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5973.12215 Perrin, A. (2018). Demographics of Social media users and adoption in the United States. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0704_336 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6496.1991.tb00773.x https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2013.12.003 https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5973.12215 SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 24 Pounders, K., Kowalczyk, K. M., & Stowers, K. (2016). Insight into the motivation of selfie posting: Impression management and self-esteem. European Journal of Marketing, 50(9/10), 1879-1892. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.034 Qiu, L., Lu, J., Yang, S., Qu, W., & Zhu, T. (2015). What does your selfie say about you? Computers in Human Behavior, 52, 443-449. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2012.697079 Qiu, L., Lin, H., Leung, A. K., & Tov, W. (2012). Putting their best foot forward: Emotional Disclosure on Facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior & Social Networking, 15(10), 569- 572. https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0200 Ridgway, J. L., & Clayton, R. B. (2016). Instagram unfiltered: Exploring associations of body image satisfaction, Instagram# selfie posting, and negative romantic relationship outcomes. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 19(1), 2-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.028 Sung, Y., Lee, J. A., Kim, E., and Choi, S. M. (2016) why we post selfies: understanding motivations for posting pictures of oneself. personality and individual differences 97, 260- 265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.06.003 Taylor, S. H., Hinck, A. S., & Lim, H. (2017) An experimental test of how selfies change social judgements on facebook. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking 20(10), 601-614. http://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2016.0759. Wang, Y., Xiaochun, X., Wang, X., Wang, P., Nie, J., & Lei, L. (2018) Narcissism and selfie- posting behavior: the mediating role of body satisfaction and the moderating role of https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2012.12.034 https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2012.697079 https://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0200 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.028 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2018.06.003 http://doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2016.0759 SOCIAL MEDIA AND NARCISSISM 25 attitude toward selfie-posting behavior. Current Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9795-9. Zemach, T., & Cohen, A. A. (1986). Perception of gender equality on television and in social reality. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 30(4), 427-444. https://doi.org/10.1037//ppm0000261 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-018-9795-9 https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000261 Continue to order Get a quote LONGEVITY GENE DISCUSSION DEFINITION OF ANOREXIA

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