Yoga and Concentration Discussion Assignment Help YOGA AND CONCENTRATION
Yoga and Concentration: Is it Effective for Children With ASD?
Yoga and Concentration: Does it Actually Work?
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) affects 1 in 54 children in the United States today according to the Centers for Disease Control. Autism spectrum disorder is a broad term that refers to impairments in socializing, speech, nonverbal communication and often act out in repetitive behaviors. Research suggests yoga is becoming a popular supplemental intervention for children with ASD because of its effectiveness. Yoga focuses on bringing harmony between the mind and body. This is especially beneficial to children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who face many other challenges beyond their diagnosis. Children with autism-spectrum disorder typically have rigidity in their body movements, tics, OCD, concentration issues, etc. Many studies have been conducted that focus on the improvement in major behavioral problems’ children with ASD have. The primary focus for our study is to analyze how effective yoga is when used as a complimentary intervention for children with ASD that have concentration problems. So, if autistic children engage in the practice of yoga, will their levels of concentration increase?
Yoga can be used as a supplemental intervention such as music therapy, horseback riding therapy, and art therapy. In a study conducted on children aged 3-16 with ASD, the therapeutic effect of movement-based complementary approaches was assessed (Rosenblatt, et. al., 2011). The relaxation response (RR) was examined by using The Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) and the Aberrant Behavioral Checklist (ABC) to measure the outcome of the study. Significant changes were found on the BASC-2 in treating behavioral problems and the core features of autism, especially in latency aged children. This means movement-based type of programs are effective and need further research.
Parents will go to great lengths to find the best possible intervention for their children. According to Semple, R.J. (2019), the misappropriation of limited time and financial resources may result in missed opportunities. Research is lacking and therapies that are safe, but not yet known to be effective, cause no immediate harm. This is why yoga and mindfulness-based programs are becoming increasingly popular amongst children with ASD. When searching through electronic databases for peer-reviewed intervention research studies, only eight studies met inclusion criteria (Semple, R.J., 2019). There is limited research making the only findings available to be inconclusive. However, positive effects were noted on social, emotional, and behavioral skills which is enough support to warrant further research.
Another study conducted used a school-based yoga program called Get Ready to Learn (GRTL). This is a classroom yoga program that was used over the course of 16 weeks to examine behavioral issues in children with autism-spectrum disorders in the classroom. The control group engaged in their standard routine and the experimental group received the manualized yoga program. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) was used to measure the outcomes of the study. In conclusion, there was a significant decrease in maladaptive behaviors among children with ASD in the classroom compared to the control group (Koenig, et. al., 2012). If there was a decrease in maladaptive behaviors in the classroom, there will be an increase in concentration as well.
Interestingly, yoga has been studied among families with children diagnosed with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) and its benefits. With the implementation of a mindfulness-based yoga program for children with ASD and their families, results indicate a benefit in the enhancement of family relationships (Garcia, et. al., 2019). In developing a better family dynamic, children with ASD will feel more comfortable in their environment. Thus, this will improve other aspects of their diagnosis such as their challenges with social skills, verbal skills, and communication.
Similarly, children with attention problems also benefit from the effectiveness of yoga. Three grade level groups were examined to investigate the effectiveness of yoga for improving time on task in children with evidenced attention problems (Peck, et. al., 2005). Twice a week, for 30 minutes, three children engaged in deep breathing and relaxation exercises shown in a yoga videotape published by Gaiam. The results indicated that the children’s’ time on task remained unchanged during the three phases of the study. Unexpected results given what research has shown across other studies.
Children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were investigated to see the effectiveness of yoga training on cognitive-motor functions. Conner’s Questionnaire, Wechsler Revised Intelligence Test, and an apparatus were used to collect the data. There was a significant difference between the experimental and control group in terms of cognitive-motor functions. According to the results obtained in the study, yoga may be an effective training method to help improving cognitive-motor functions in children with ADHD (Beik, et. al., 2015).
Does yoga have a positive effect on concentration in children with ASD? We designed a study that assessed the increasing levels of concentration in children with autism-spectrum disorder who practiced yoga. Our participants were 20 children aged 5-15 diagnosed with autism-spectrum disorder. There were two groups: the experimental group and the control group. The experimental group were the children who practiced yoga and the control group were the children who did not practice yoga. An experimental pre-test and post-test control group design was used to examine the concentration amongst children with ASD. The Aberrant Behavior Checklist was used to measure the data pre- and post-test. We predicted the participants would have higher levels of concentration after engaging in yoga training. Our predictions were supported indicating a significant change in time on task seen on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.
In this study, the participants were children previously diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The children were aged 5 to 15 and there were 20 participants in the experiment.
Measures and Procedures
Rosenblatt, L. E., Gorantla, S., Torres, J. A., Yarmush, R. S., Rao, S., Park, E. R., Denninger, J.
W., Benson, H., Fricchione, G. L., Bernstein, B., & Levine, J. B. (2011). Relaxation response–based yoga improves functioning in young children with autism: A pilot study. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(11), 1029-1035. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.1089/acm.2010.0834
Semple, R. J. (2019). Review: Yoga and mindfulness for youth with autism spectrum disorder:
Review of the current evidence. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 24(1), 12-18. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.1111/camh.12295
Koenig, K. P., Buckley-Reen, A., & Garg, S. (2012). Efficacy of the Get Ready to Learn yoga
program among children with autism spectrum disorders: A pretest-posttest control group design. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 66(5), 538-546. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.5014/ajot.2012.004390
Peck, H. L., Kehle, T. J., Bray, M. A., & Theodore, L. A. (2005). Yoga as an Intervention for
Children With Attention Problems. School Psychology Review, 34(3), 415-424. http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/scholarly-journals/yoga-as-intervention-children-with-attention/docview/620910259/se-2?accountid=10901
Beik, M., Nezakatalhoseini, M., Abedi, A., & Badami, R. (2015). The effect of yoga training on cognitive-motor functions in children with attention deficit—Hyperactivity disorder. Advances in Cognitive Science, 17(266), 56-67. http://ezproxy.fiu.edu/login?url=https://www-proquest-com.ezproxy.fiu.edu/scholarly-journals/effect-yoga-training-on-cognitive-motor-functions/docview/1964616578/se-2?accountid=10901
Garcia, J. M., Baker, K., Diaz, M. R., Tucker, J. E., Kelchner, V. P., & Rice, D. J. (2019). Implementation fidelity of a mindfulness-based yoga program for children with autism spectrum disorder and their families: A pilot study. Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders, 3(1), 54-62. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.1007/s41252-018-0091-3
Sheinman, N., Hadar, L. L., Gafni, D., & Milman, M. (2018). Preliminary investigation of whole-school mindfulness in education programs and children’s mindfulness-based coping strategies. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27(10), 3316-3328. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.fiu.edu/10.1007/s10826-018-1156-7
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